Sources Carnosine, the active metabolite of beta-alanine, is most abundant in skeletal muscle. Muscle levels of carnosine depend on the metabolic acidosis the animal is subjected to. Deep-sea species of fish, in particular, are thought to maintain high carnosine levels to combat the state of metabolic acidosis induced by low oxygen levels in deep waters. Farm-raised animals, being less active, would have lower levels of carnosine than wild animals.
This reduction in the ICR was attributed to the precipitated silver nanoparticles in the implanted layer as well as a noticeable reduction in the passive layer thickness and increased amounts of highly conducive metallic silver and nickel.
All tests showed higher chemical stability of such plates in accelerated cathode environments containing 0. The superiority of Ni-coated plates is attributed to the reduction in the thickness of the passive layer caused by the Ni implantation. It was suggested to modify the zirconia film by inclusion of conducting materials into the coating via doping to improve its electrical conductivity.
Such measures have resulted in films with lower ICR in earlier studies [ — ]. Novel composite bipolar An analysis of the financial performance of proton based on L SS also have been investigated. Kuo and Chen [ ] fabricated bipolar plates using L SS and Nylon-6 polymer thermoplastic matrix using an injection molding process.
It was claimed that such bipolar plates are relatively lightweight, easy to process, inexpensive, and exhibit favourable gas tightness, hardness and corrosion resistance.
However, they failed to match graphite bipolar plates as far as stack performance was concerned. They reported superior corrosion behavior and acceptable interfacial contact resistance.
However, long-term economic viability and durability studies are absent from this report. Wang and Northwood [ ] developed a method to electro-polymerize polypyrrole films on L SS using both galvanostatic and cyclic voltammetric methods.
The aforementioned electrochemical methods yielded two different films with marked differences in morphology. Optical microscopy revealed less intergranular corrosion for plates covered with a dense coat of polypyrrole when compared with untreated L SS plates.
Physical vapor deposition was employed by Lee et al. Tafel extrapolations from polarization curves were used to compare the corrosion rates of the above metal plates with that of graphite. Surprisingly, the metallic plates outperformed graphite plates when placed in a single cell to measure interfacial contact resistance and performance.
According to the authors, L SS plates exhibited better corrosion resistance with the above coating than aluminum plates. However, aluminum plates proved to be superior compared with stainless steels when interfacial contact resistance was concerned, although they had a shorter life when tested in a single cell.
All three films—pure carbon, C-Cr, and C-Cr-N composite films—were prepared using pulsed bias arc ion plating. However, the bipolar plate with the C-Cr composite film exhibited an acceptable ICR value of about 8.
The corrosion current density of the plate covered with the C-Cr composite film was reported to be two orders of magnitude lower than that of the bare L SS in simulated anode and cathode PEMFC environments.
Experience the difference in every drive at Proton. Find out more about our cars, explore our latest promotions or book your next service and test drive here. The new MSN Singapore – your customisable collection of the best in news, sport, entertainment, money, weather, travel, health and lifestyle, combined with Outlook, Facebook, Twitter, Skype. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research.
However, the corrosion current density for the other two carbon-based films was not disclosed. Fabrication of Metallic Bipolar Plates There has been significant activity in fabricating bipolar plates using a number of different processes.
It is necessary to develop a manufacturing process that is cost effective and efficient in order to make a metallic plate a viable candidate for commercial production. The key manufacturing processes involved in the fabrication of metal plates include forming thin plates with appropriate flow fields, welding of the anode and the cathode plates, and coating of the metal substrate.
Commonly used forming processes include compression molding, stamping, and embossing; the common defects that result from such processes are warping, distortion, and cracking [ 38 ]. Metallic plates have extensively been fabricated and tested for their corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance properties [ — ].
A stamping force, ranging from to kN, and a hydroforming pressure range of 20—60 MPa were considered along with a stamping speed of 0. It was found that the corrosion current increased with increasing stamping force, while pressure had only a minor effect.
The corrosion resistance of the blank plate was better than that of the hydroformed plate except when the plate was hydroformed at 60 MPabut worse than that of stamped plates except when the plate was stamped at kN.
It also was reported that faster stamping speed resulted in an improvement in the corrosion resistance of the plates. Significant cost reductions were reported when machining the flow channels was replaced with the hydroforming process.
They reported that employing the above technique can result in bipolar plates with high surface quality and dimensional accuracy, and low cost and high efficiency. Additionally, the key process parameters of the rubber pad method were investigated and a prototype was fabricated to validate the accuracy and reliability of the simulations.
In another study, the same authors [ ] devised a new axiomatic design to fabricate composite PEMFC endplates for transportation applications. Based on a number of bending and thermal conductivity tests, they claimed that the flexural strength and stiffness of a carbon fiber epoxy structure with polyurethane foam- PUF- filled honeycomb was three times greater than those of other structures.
Furthermore, inserts were used to reinforce the composite structure to prevent deformation during clamping.
Nikam and Reddy [ ] reported on the use of corrugated metal for fabricating bipolar plates, with a focus on weight and cost reduction. By replacing traditional machined parallel-flow channels with sheet metallic bipolar plates, significant savings in both weight and cost were noted.
Improvements in both volumetric and specific power densities were observed; however, challenges with adequate stack cooling were encountered.
A large number of coating processes and techniques has been employed both in the research community and in industry to deposit a wide array of coating materials on different base materials.
Pulse current electrodeposition has been successfully used to apply a thin layer of gold over aluminum bipolar plates .
Painting and pressing have been employed to apply a graphite layer onto aluminum, titanium, and nickel bipolar plates [ 89 ], while electron beam evaporation has been used to deposit a thin layer of indium-doped tin oxide on a number of base metals such as stainless steel [ 90 ].
Physical vapor deposition has been employed to deposit a number of coating materials such as chromium or nickel-phosphorus alloy onto aluminum, stainless steel and titanium [ ].Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi. Financial Operations Division Marty Cammack, director, The Financial Operations Division provides fiscal services and controls financial transactions of the department.
The Wolfcamp play has been key to Permian Basin oil and natural gas production growth ›. Increased oil and natural gas development in the Wolfcamp play has helped drive overall crude oil and natural gas production growth in the Permian Basin during the past decade.
From a financial analyst perspective, has the proton management done a good job? Based on the financial performance of PROTON from till , our observation from a financial analysis perspective showed that Proton management has not done a good job as far as financial performance is concern.
Listing Information Network (LINK) What is the Listing Information Network (LINK)? The Listing Information Network (LINK) is the network connecting public listed companies (PLCs), merchant banks and external company secretaries to Bursa Malaysia for the purpose of corporate disclosure and information exchange.
1 Financial Analysis All figures used in calculations below are based on Proton’s official annual financial statements that have the closing date on March 31 of every year. Profitability Ratios /5(1).