This debate has found its way not only in historical circles, but also in philosophypolitical theory and sociology.
When the Estates General of in France was convened in May—June at the Palace of Versaillesthe club, originated as the Club Bretonwas composed exclusively of a group of Breton representatives attending those Estates General.
At this time, meetings occurred in secret, and few traces remain concerning what took place or where the meetings were convened. All citizens were allowed to enter, and even foreigners were welcomed: Jacobin Club meetings soon became a place for radical and rousing oratory that pushed for republicanism, widespread education, universal suffrage, separation of church and state, and other reforms.
The club's objectives were defined as such: To discuss in advance questions to be decided by the National Assembly. To work for the establishment and strengthening of the constitution in accordance with the spirit of the preamble that is, of respect for legally constituted authority and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
To correspond with other societies of the same kind which should be formed in the realm. At the same time the rules of order of election were settled, and the constitution of the club determined. There was to be a president, elected every month, four secretaries, a treasurer, and committees elected to superintend elections and presentations, the correspondence, and the administration of the club.
Any member who by word or action showed that his principles were contrary to the constitution and the rights of man was to be expelled.
Maximilien Robespierre is one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. He was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended with his arrest and execution in There was a sense of emergency among leading politicians in France in the summer of between the widespread civil war and counter-revolution. Introduction to The Fall of Robespierre By Daniel E. White Introduction to The Fall of Robespierre By Daniel E. White Years later Southey would recall the history of The Fall of Robespierre to Coleridge's nephew Henry Nelson few happier moments have been mine / Through my whole life than that when first I heard / That this foul tribe of.
By 10 August there were already one hundred and fifty-two affiliated clubs; the attempts at counter-revolution led to a great increase of their number in the spring ofand by the close of the year the Jacobins had a network of branches all over France.
At the peak there were at least 7, chapters throughout France, with a membership estimated at a half-million or more. It was this widespread yet highly centralised organization that gave to the Jacobin Club great power. Numbers of men were member of two or more of such clubs.
Women were not accepted as members of the Jacobin Club nor of most other clubsbut they were allowed to follow the discussions from the balconies. The rather high subscription of the Jacobin Club confined its membership to well-off men.
The Jacobins claimed to speak on behalf of the people but were themselves not of 'the people': From the start, however, other elements were also present.
They did not support the petition of 17 July for the king's dethronementbut instead published their own petition calling for replacement of king Louis XVI.
Disdainfully, Robespierre addressed those Jacobin war promotors as 'the faction from the Gironde'; some, not all of them, were indeed from department Gironde.
The Assembly in April finally decided for war, thus following the ' Girondin ' line on it, but Robespierre's place among the Jacobins had now become much more prominent.
These groups never had any official status, nor official memberships. The Mountain was not even very homogenous in their political views: But after JuneGirondins visited less and less the Jacobin Club, where Robespierre, their fierce opponent, grew more and more dominant. Some historians prefer to identify a parliamentary group around Robespierre as Jacobins,   which can be confusing because not all Montagnards were Jacobin and their primal enemies, the Girondins, were originally also Jacobins.
By SeptemberRobespierre indeed had also become the dominant voice in the Jacobin Club. By now, they stopped visiting the Jacobin Club.
INTRODUCTION ROBESPIERRE, OR, THE ‘DIVINE VIOLENCE’ OF TERROR When, in , Zhou Enlai, the Chinese Prime Minister, was in Geneva for the peace negotiations to end the Korean War, a French. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. His first major philosophical work, A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, was the winning response to an essay contest conducted by the Academy of Dijon in In this work. — Maximilien Robespierre, Though nominally all members of the committee were equal, Robespierre was later presented during the Thermidorian Reaction by the surviving protagonists of the Terror, especially Bertrand Barère, as prominent.
The remaining of the deputies of the Convention were called 'the Plain' French: Initially, it counted no Girondins and only one or two Montagnards, but gradually the influence of Montagnards in the Committee grew.
Later that month, the Girondin Guadet accused the Montagnard Marat of 'preaching plunder and murder' and trying 'to destroy the sovereignty of the people'. A majority of the Convention agreed to put Marat on trial, but the court of justice quickly acquitted Marat.
This apparent victory of the Montagnards intensified their antipathies of the Girondins, and more proposals were vented to get rid of the Girondins.
The next day, Robespierre said in the Jacobin Club that the people should "rise up against the corrupted deputies" in the Convention.
On 27 May, both Girondins and Montagnards accused the other party of propagating civil war. In a chaotic session a decree was adopted that day by the Convention, expelling 22 leading Girondins from the Convention, including LanjuinaisIsnard and Fauchet.
Robespierre for his steadfast adherence to and defence of his views received the nickname and reputation of l'Incorruptible The Incorruptible or The Unassailable. The government in Paris called such revolts 'federalist' which was not accurate:I was introduced to Robespierre through my A Level History course, and I've found these speeches, and also the highly thought-provoking introduction in the book to Through the speeches introduced by Slavoj Zizek, one can begin to understand the mind-set, and reasoning provided behind the great slaughter of French people during the /5.
Though the Assassins' philosophy begins with a purely empirical assessment of life that seemingly verges on nihilism, their order is profoundly idealistic, with a deep sentiment for principles of social justice, humanitarianism, egalitarianism, and liberty.
INTRODUCTION ROBESPIERRE, OR, THE ‘DIVINE VIOLENCE’ OF TERROR When, in , Zhou Enlai, the Chinese Prime Minister, was in Geneva for the peace negotiations to end the Korean War, a French. Maximilien Robespierre: Maximilien Robespierre, Robespierre, his life threatened, went to live with the family of the cabinetmaker Maurice Duplay.
Public Broadcasting Service - Marie Antoinette and the French Revolution - Biography of Maximilien Robespierre; Heritage History - Biography of Robespierre; Alpha History - . + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Robespierre’s Transformation and the French Revolution. By: Nicole Irace. Introduction: Peter McPhee explores the life of Robespierre and his transformation from popular diplomat to hated radical.
In this source McPhee studies Robespierre before and during the revolution using information about Robespierre from acquaintances .