Yemen cholera outbreak grows, with children bearing brunt "We are declaring an emergency for Harare.
Posted in Across the African continent, there is an ongoing outbreak of Cholera infection. Nine countries have reported cases as well as deaths to the World Health Organisation. These include the popular destinations of KenyaNigeriaTanzania and Zambia. In Kenya, outbreaks have occurred in the main Cities of Nairobi and Mombasa and in Zambia, the majority of cases are in Lusaka.
The Zambian Authorities have now started a vaccination programme for the residents of Lusaka to prevent the spread. About Cholera Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal illness that is spread through contaminated food and water. Disease transmission is linked to poor access to clean water and sanitation facilities.
As it is highly infectious, the disease can spread rapidly leading to outbreaks. The infection can take 12 hours to 5 days to manifest following exposure and can present with profuse watery diarrhoea.
The majority of people infected have mild symptoms that are easily treated with oral rehydration salts. In those who develop severe symptoms, the disease can lead to dehydration and death in a few hours of onset if treatment is not sought urgently.
Over 50 percent of the most severely affected patients die within a few hours. Severe disease is more likely to occur in those with lowered immunity, pre-existing liver disease or if a high number of infecting bacteria is ingested.
Prevention Maintaining food and water hygiene is key to prevention of cholera and other infections transmitted this way, such as hepatitis A and Typhoid. Only drink boiled or bottled water-it may be necessary to use bottled water to brush teeth also. Avoid any ice Only eat food that has been thoroughly cooked-avoid salads, uncooked fruit and vegetables.
Avoid raw or under-cooked meat, fish and shellfish. Vaccination is another method to reduce the risk of infection. The cholera vaccine is available as a drink and can be given to individuals from 2 years and over.
It is available at all CityDoc Travel Clinics. The vaccine consists of 2 doses in individuals above 6 years of age and 3 doses in children between years of age.
As the vaccine is inactivated, it cannot cause the disease and nor is the vaccinated person infectious afterwards. The vaccine should be considered if you are: Travelling to a country with an active outbreak of Cholera If you have an underlying condition, such as liver disease, or immune disorders that will predispose to severe infection.
If you are going to undertaking activities that may increase the risk of contracting the infection, such as Humanitarian Aid Work, voluntary work or travel o remote locations where access to clean water may be inadequate.The knowledge of how water borne diseases were spread that resulted from Dr John Snow’s investigations in Broad Street, Soho and the building its sewage system by the Metropolitan Board of Works enabled London to avoid further outbreaks of cholera —including a particularly nasty typhoid outbreak that hit Germany in the early 20th century.
In recent years, CDC has assisted with an increasing number of large cholera outbreaks in east Africa. The ongoing presence of cholera in the region, extreme weather events, and urbanization have made cholera prevention and control challenging. From late to late , a cholera outbreak spread across Kenya.
Typhoid fever is a vaccine-preventable bacterial disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout Africa. This paper describes an upsurge of typhoid fever cases in Moyale Sub-County (MSC), Kenya, – The biggest worries are cholera and typhoid, which spread fast and easily kill, especially in camps for IDPs where sanitation is poor.
"We are monitoring camps to ward off disease outbreaks. The first cholera outbreak reported in was in Tana River County. The outbreak started on 10 October and was controlled by April Since the beginning of , Kenya is experiencing an upsurge of cholera cases. Cholera not new to Zimbabwe.
According to the World Health Organisation, cholera outbreaks have become more frequent in Zimbabwe since the early s.
In more than 4 people were killed in one of the worst cholera outbreaks to have hit the country.