Breathing, foodwater, air, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion 1st Root Chakra Anal, survival and safety This table should not be taken too literarily.
These selected excerpts include the Abstract-Overview, along with the entirety of Chapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 a literature review of health and optimal well-being among over three dozen prominent Western psychologistsand Chapter 5 Summary-Conclusions-Comments.
Many additional criteria, affirmed by the literature and survey respondents, were posited e. Discrepancies were sometimes found between what classic spiritual literature affirms as criteria and what some modern representatives maintain.
Survey respondents indicate three especially important means for spiritual realization: What is optimal well-being? To put this question in only slightly different terms: What is the highest stage of human development?
This dissertation examines the hypothesis: It is to be noted that this author is specifically interested in examining optimal well-being in terms of spiritual realization awakening, liberation, enlightenment, and so forth.
However, it is readily seen that humans ostensibly very healthy on the biological level can still live in a state of great dissatisfaction, even misery, such as when psychologically ridden by frustration, depression, resentment, boredom, jealousy, and so forth.
But the history of psychology shows that it mainly arose more as an expedient to remedy the existence of various types of disturbing mental disorder, rather than as an exploration of the farther higher reaches of human well-being.
Of course, some of these psychologists have gone deeper than others into the subject. In contrast to the behaviorists and mainstream psychoanalysts, these researchers encouraged a study of true well-being and, in a rudimentary fashion, began to probe some of its possible features.
Their research see next chapter for a review of some of this literature often touched on or even delved deeply into such spiritual traditions as Zen Buddhism, Hindu Vedanta, and Christian mysticism so as to enrich their views.
Unfortunately, there was no official support for, or seeming great interest in, this work in the mainstream of psychology. Psychologists were still mainly interested in the dynamics of pathology, not extraordinary health, and the two main paradigms in psychology for studying pathology were psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
With this so-called "third force" in psychology, there could now be an official focus on dynamics of health in addition to the focus on the dynamics of pathology. This ushered in the human potential movement and the concern for self-actualization.
But within less than a decade, even the paradigm of humanistic psychology was obsolete for studies in extreme well-being. Their definitions of maturity and health reach no further than psychosocial identity, object constancy, mutuality in object relations, and more adaptive, less conflicted rearrangements of impulse and defense.
Yet much of the agony of our time stems from a spiritual vacuum. Furthermore, transpersonal psychologists were now very open to practicing spiritual disciplines and dialoguing with teachers more or less representative of these spiritual traditions.
A number of articles by, or interviews with, various spiritual teachers themselves are to be found in the issues especially the earlier issues of the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology.
An encounter with spiritual traditions was noteworthy, since one reason psychology arose in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was due to the evident failure of the Western religious traditions to help Westerners handle their mental disorders.Individuals like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow strongly felt that the approaches prevalent at that time could not adequately address issues like the meaning of behavior, and the nature of healthy.
Comparison of Humanistic and Existential Psychology. Overview of Humanistic Psychology Humanistic psychology can be traced to Abraham Maslow as the founding father, but through time has become closely associated with Carl Roger’s Person-Centered Therapy (or ClientCentered Therapy). Baumeister () provides the following self-concept definition: "The individual's belief about himself or herself, including the person's attributes and who and what the self is".
The self-concept is an important term for both social and humanistic psychology. A comprehensive review of positive psychology. Positive psychology. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction.
Comparison of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs with Chakras and Transactional-Analysis Ego States. In the chart below we compare Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs with the Seven Chakras from Eastern Psychology and tradition and with the three ego of states of Transactional Analysis (TA) created by Eric Berne.
- Comparison of Theories on Personality Abstract This paper is a comparison of three different viewpoints on the subject of personality. Carl Jung, B.F.
Skinner, and Carl Rogers all had very different outlooks on what defined someone’s personality.