Petersburg]Russian physiologist known chiefly for his development of the concept of the conditioned reflex. In a now-classic experiment, he trained a hungry dog to salivate at the sound of a bell, which was previously associated with the sight of food.
Contact Author Behaviorists believe that psychology should focus on measureable and observable physical behaviors and how these behaviors can be manipulated by changes in the external environment. There is no room in behaviorist theory for thoughts or emotions, a contrast to other theories of psychology.
Source Watson John Watson was the founder of behavorist theory. Quite innovatively for the time, he found Freudian-based explanations of behavior too theoretical and disagreed with the eugenic idea of heredity determining how one behaves. Instead, he believed that people's reactions in various situations were determined by how their overall experiences had programmed them to react.
In experiments he performed in the early s he showed that he could condition, or train, children to respond to a certain stimulus in a way that was different from what their normal response would be in the absence of such training.
For example, one infant named Albert who had previously liked and attempted to pet a white rat was later conditioned by Watson to come to fear it. This was done by producing loud clanging noises whenever the rat was brought into Albert's line of sight; in a few weeks time, the rat alone could induce tears and an attempted flight response by the terrified baby.
Because Watson repeatedly stimulated Albert to feel fear when the rat was present, the infant's experiences taught it to be afraid around rats and react accordingly.
Albert not only feared rats but had been programmed through the experiment to fear most other white and fuzzy objects as well, from coats to Santa Claus beards.
Source Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first to introduce the concept of conditioning through his experiments with animals. His conclusions directly influenced Watson and provided him with the original scientific basis for his beliefs. In these experiments, Pavlov worked with dogs that, like most, salivated naturally in the presence of food.
Because this respone is innate, the animals were displaying an unconditioned response salivation to an unconditioned stimulus food. Pavlov then, for the sake of experimentation, began to produce a metronome sound at the time of each feeding. Eventually, the dogs started to drool after hearing it and in anticipation of food, even when none was present.
At the end of his experiments, Pavlov was able to condition, or teach, these dogs to salivate in unnatural situations after hearing a sound to stimuli which would normally not ellicit that response sound.
In essence, Pavlov had transformed salivation into a conditioned behavior and the metronome had become a conditioned stimulus.
Pavlov further discovered that conditioned behaviors of this type would disappear if they failed to deliver the expected outcome; for example, if the metronome was sounded repeatedly and no food was presented, dogs would eventually stop associating the two and their drooling response to the sound would vanish.
Thorndike Edward Thorndike came up with the concept of intrumental conditioning and, like Pavlov, reached his main conclusions using data gained through animal-based experimentation. Such experiments included placing hungry cats in an enclosed container, which Skinner referred to as a puzzle box, from which they had to escape in order to reach food.
The first time a cat was placed in this situation it escaped only after several failed attempts and a single lucky successful guess such as pushing the right button. However, the time it took to escape decreased each time a cat was returned to the box. This meant, first of all, that the cats remembered which behavior was necessary to escape and get the reward of food.
If they had not, it would take approximately the same time for them to refigure it out and there would not be the trend of a continually faster escape. Secondly, they were clearly able to recognize their current situation being placed in the puzzle box was identical to the last time they were placed inside of the puzzle box, and therefore that the same successful behavior used before would achieve the same end result the next time around: Source Using his data Thorndike developed two main laws concerning conditioning.
The first was the law of exercise, stating simply that the repetition of a response strengthens it. Each time a cat was placed in the puzzle box it exhibited a stronger inclination to perform the behaviors required, exiting the box with increased proficiency and in a shorter time span.
The second law, the law of effect, established that behaviors were either strengthened or weakened, depending on whether they were rewarded or punished.
Each time the successful behavior was repeated, it was done so more quickly because the cat no longer wasted time performing other behaviors which had proven unsuccessful and kept the animal imprisoned.
Source Skinner B. Skinner developed the behavorist theory of operant conditioning. Contrary to the theories of both Watson and Pavlov, Skinner believed that it wasn't what comes before a behavior that influences it, but rather what comes directly after it.Pavlov’s method of studying the normal, healthy animal in natural conditions made possible his contributions to science.
He was able to formulate the idea of the conditioned reflex because of his ability to reduce a complex situation to the simple terms of an experiment. Emotions are the most important aspect of our mental health.
The following articles and information are contributions from experts and people who have knowledge and different views for managing emotions and feelings. Ivan Pavlov, the eldest of eleven children, was born in Ryazan, Russian plombier-nemours.com father, Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov (–), was a village Russian orthodox priest.
His mother, Varvara Ivanovna Uspenskaya (–), was a devoted homemaker.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, (born September 14 [September 26, New Style], , Ryazan, Russia—died February 27, , Leningrad [now St. Petersburg]), Russian physiologist known chiefly for his development of the concept of the conditioned plombier-nemours.com a now-classic experiment, he trained a hungry dog to salivate at the sound of a bell, which was .
The device offically designated RDS, known to its designers as Big Ivan, and nicknamed in the west Tsar Bomba (and referred to as the Big Bomb by Sakharov in his Memoirs [Sakharov ]) was the largest nuclear weapon ever constructed or plombier-nemours.com three stage weapon was actually a megaton bomb design, but the .
Hailed as the "Prince of World Physiology," Ivan Pavlov continues to influence scientists today. His pioneering research on digestion, the brain, and behavior still provides important insights into the minds of animals--including humans--and is an inspiring example of imaginative experimental technique.