When it comes to the powerful ideas in our heads and the core values in our hearts, we censor ourselves.
High School Statutory Authority: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing.
The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English I, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills.
Students should read and write on a daily basis. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies.
Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.
ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language e. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful.
ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.
However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition.
It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.
Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to: Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding.
Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery e. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions e. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event.
Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.At the outset of this special issue on institutional effectiveness in higher education, it is important to differentiate the meaning of effec tiveness from other terms that often are used synonymously, such as quality, efficiency, and excellence.
THOMAS KUHN'S CONCEPT OF PARADIGM, i.e. NARRATIVE DISPLACEMENT IN HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Thomas Samuel Kuhn was born on July 18, , in Cincinnati, Ohio. Horizontal and Vertical Structures: The Dynamics of Organization in Higher Education By: Richard P.
Keeling, Ric Underhile and Andrew F.
Wall The organization of institutions of higher education has been seen as operating with ambiguous purposes in vertically oriented structures that are only loosely connected (Cohen and March ; Weick . A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors".
Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, §§(c)(4), , and , unless otherwise noted.
In a democracy, students need to learn to live with a high tolerance for ambiguity, writes José Antonio Bowen. In a democracy, students need to learn to live with a high tolerance for ambiguity, writes José Antonio Bowen.
then it is vital that we in higher education understand: (1) the specific nature of this sensitivity and (2) what.